Louise Bourgeois was born in Paris in 1911, moved to the U.S with her husband, Robert Goldwater in 1938. Bourgeois began as an engraver and painter, but in the 1940’s moved toward sculptural works. The influx of European Surrealist artists who immigrated to the United States after World War II greatly influenced Bourgeois in her early sculpture, composed of abstract and organic shapes, often carved from wood. Bourgeois worked through many of the twentieth century’s Avant-Garde movement from abstraction to realism, while maintaining her individuality and ability to portray her emotions through her art. By the 1960’s, Bourgeois began using materials such as rubber, bronze, and stone and the works themselves became larger in size. Although Bourgeois had been exhibiting in galleries throughout New York, it was not until the 1970’s that Bourgeois became a successful artist. Bourgeois has had major exhibitions and retrospectives in major museums such as the Tate Modern, London, Centre Pompidou, Paris, Museum of Modern Art, New York, Whitney Museum of Art, New York, Museum of Contemporary Art, Chicago, and the Guggenheim, New York. On May 31, 2010, Louise Bourgeois passed away in Manhattan, New York.